Semenovskaya matryoshka or nesting dolls appeared in 1922. By this time, in the village of Merinovo there were more than a hundred craftsmen making a variety of fun toys. The matryoshka nesting doll that was popular and walked around the world for 3 decades was brought from the fair and the masters liked it very much. But do you know what is a nesting doll and the operation behind the making of the same? Let us find out.
- The first began to make detachable doll steel Mayorov and Vagin. Imitating Zagorian masters Averyan Vagin began to sharpen the mixture of nested dolls: bald peasants with beards and mustaches and peasants in portly hats.
- But Arseny Mayorov matryoshka was somewhat different. His Oldest daughter Lyuba made a drawing on a doll with a goose feather and painted it with aniline dyes.
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- Glorious turned out matryoshka, elegant: In the center of the apron is a bright scarlet flower a daisy, on the head is a kokoshnik. Liked the drawing of the younger daughter Zinaida very much, after which she also contributed to the doll. So both sisters began to show off to each other – who would write it down better.
The Essence of Creativity
Once the creativity of the sisters saw a visiting artist! It was he who gave the sisters good advice – write rural beauties. Since then, the Semenovskaya matryoshka finally found its image and no longer competed with the Zagorian doll. In the Zagorsky nesting dolls there is a lot of urban, more rigors in clothing. In Semenov’s – more brightness, as if pulled out of a round dance, the blush on her cheeks – was out of breath. So she went just such a light, where she was received with great joy.
And what is surprising – today, few people know about the Zagorsk matryoshka, but everyone knows Semenov. Of course, it should be called Merinovskaya, but the craft there began to fade and the masters went to the city – to factories and artels. Therefore, it is so rooted: Semenov matryoshka.
Until recently, everyone who went abroad carried the main souvenir – painted Russian traditional and non-traditional dolls. It was the most visiting and business doll in the world.
The oldest Russian matryoshka is the Sergiev Posad. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a teaching and demonstration workshop in Sergiev Posad began to produce a wooden matryoshka painted with gouache and varnished. Sergiev Posad matryoshka dense, squat, with a smooth transition of the head into the body. In the images of the first such matryoshkas, the wizard embodied characters taken from life, depicting peasant girls, shepherds with a pipe, old men, the bride and groom, as well as heroes of fairy tales, fables and even historical events.
At the same time, the production of dolls began in the Semenovsky district of the Nizhny Novgorod province. Semenovskie matryoshka slimmer, with a small head and a more rounded body, and they are also brighter colored. Craftswomen gave them the image of a lively, smart girl in a flowered shawl and beautiful apron. Painted them with aniline dyes, which, unfortunately, quickly fade.
After them, matryoshka appeared in Polkhov-Maidan, in the industries of Kalinin, Kirov, Naro-Fominsk and Babenok (Moscow region), Krasnokamsk (Perm region). Matryoshka Polkhov-Maidan is very diverse in shape. There are among them elongated single nesting dolls, nesting dolls, dense and squat, but several elongated shapes with a narrow head, as if cut from above, with sloping hangers, predominate. They are painted, as well as Semenov, aniline dyes.
In the village of Krutets in the paintings of matryoshk household lines appear. From the colors covering the toy, only the strict face framed by black curls looks out. These curls are a genuine detail of an old local women’s dress. Matryoshek faces draw succinctly, creating a generalized image of a village girl. Each Maidan master dyer in her own way embodies this ideal of beauty. They have recently added contour drawing with free brush strokes. Enriched and palette. Cold and warm colors boldly coexist, creating tension gamma.
The peculiar form of Kalinin dolls. They are more elongated than the Sergiev Posad, they are not so clearly identified transitions from the bottom of the figures to the top. Kalininskaya matryoshka gives the originality of painting, the technique of which was also borrowed in Sergiev Posad. However, due to the small size of the figures, the clear lines of the pattern, made by the burning needle and recessed into the wood, acquired an additional decorative sound that enriched the color range of the painting.
Modern kirovskie dolls are available in two types: painted and additionally decorated with straws and traditional forms, with the identification of the outlines of the head, shoulders and with a conical body.
The matryoshka is a hollow doll consisting of two detachable parts, therefore, they grind it in two steps. Like any turning product that has an internal cavity, it is made from a cylindrical blank. Hollow products are turned on lathes with a cup, cam or disc chuck. For reliable fixing of a blank on a lathe, its end face is tied to a cone, if the cartridge is a cup, and in the form of a cylinder, if it is a cam. The blanks processed in cup and cam cartridges should have an allowance for processing along the length of 40-50 mm, thickness and width of 4-5 mm. A product consisting of two parts should have an additional allowance along the length of the blank. It is strengthened on the wall, centered and cleaned the end. Then, in accordance with the sketch produce rough turning of the head.
The Sharp End
The sharp end of the shoal cut off the head. When turning out internal volumes, care must be taken to ensure that the disc is stably reinforced. On the butt from the outside they grind a fold, the outer diameter of which should be 0.5 mm smaller than the internal diameter of the head. The fold is an edge treated as an incoming right angle with unequal sides. Edge for better donning the head cut at an angle to the ledge. Then mark the height of the bottom of the matryoshka. Using a semicircular chisel, they grind out the internal volume and, using a hook of the desired bend radius, clean it and then the bottom. On the machined lower part they put on the head and grind both parts with a jamb, pushing them to each other. Next form the protruding ring base matryoshka. Sand the surface. The butt is cut off at the sharp corner of the joint, and the matryoshka is ready.
In the process of turning nesting dolls, the turner periodically uses templates, marking up the blanks along the length and adjusting the diameter of the carved figures. This is especially necessary in the manufacture of multi-seat (multi-school) nesting dolls, the exact observance of the dimensions of which ensures the free entry of one into another.
In the 20th century, matryoshka dolls by artist Nechaev gained popularity, it was in the 80s. He created dolls for every taste: there were different shapes, styles, and sizes. Tourists simply dismantled matryoshka, they flew away like pies. Today, by the way, there are not only five-seater nesting dolls, but also others – in which 7.10 or even 15 figures. In 1913 a record was set, the craftsmen made a doll from 48 dolls.…